Quest Sudo

NAME
    sudoers - list of which users may execute what

DESCRIPTION
    The sudoers file is composed of two types of entries: aliases (basically
    variables) and user specifications (which specify who may run what).

    When multiple entries match for a user, they are applied in order. Where
    there are multiple matches, the last match is used (which is not
    necessarily the most specific match).

    The sudoers grammar will be described below in Extended Backus-Naur Form
    (EBNF). Don't despair if you don't know what EBNF is; it is fairly
    simple, and the definitions below are annotated.

  Quick guide to EBNF
    EBNF is a concise and exact way of describing the grammar of a language.
    Each EBNF definition is made up of production rules. E.g.,

     symbol ::= definition | alternate1 | alternate2 ...

    Each production rule references others and thus makes up a grammar for
    the language. EBNF also contains the following operators, which many
    readers will recognize from regular expressions. Do not, however,
    confuse them with "wildcard" characters, which have different meanings.

    "?" Means that the preceding symbol (or group of symbols) is optional.
        That is, it may appear once or not at all.

    "*" Means that the preceding symbol (or group of symbols) may appear
        zero or more times.

    "+" Means that the preceding symbol (or group of symbols) may appear one
        or more times.

    Parentheses may be used to group symbols together. For clarity, we will
    use single quotes ('') to designate what is a verbatim character string
    (as opposed to a symbol name).

  Aliases
    There are four kinds of aliases: "User_Alias", "Runas_Alias",
    "Host_Alias" and "Cmnd_Alias".

     Alias ::= 'User_Alias'  User_Alias (':' User_Alias)* |
               'Runas_Alias' Runas_Alias (':' Runas_Alias)* |
               'Host_Alias'  Host_Alias (':' Host_Alias)* |
               'Cmnd_Alias'  Cmnd_Alias (':' Cmnd_Alias)*

     User_Alias ::= NAME '=' User_List

     Runas_Alias ::= NAME '=' Runas_List

     Host_Alias ::= NAME '=' Host_List

     Cmnd_Alias ::= NAME '=' Cmnd_List

     NAME ::= [A-Z]([A-Z][0-9]_)*

    Each alias definition is of the form

     Alias_Type NAME = item1, item2, ...

    where Alias_Type is one of "User_Alias", "Runas_Alias", "Host_Alias", or
    "Cmnd_Alias". A "NAME" is a string of uppercase letters, numbers, and
    underscore characters ('_'). A "NAME" must start with an uppercase
    letter. It is possible to put several alias definitions of the same type
    on a single line, joined by a colon (':'). E.g.,

     Alias_Type NAME = item1, item2, item3 : NAME = item4, item5

    The definitions of what constitutes a valid alias member follow.

     User_List ::= User |
                   User ',' User_List

     User ::= '!'* username |
              '!'* '#'uid |
              '!'* '%'group |
              '!'* '+'netgroup |
              '!'* '%:'nonunix_group |
              '!'* User_Alias

    A "User_List" is made up of one or more usernames, uids (prefixed with
    '#'), system groups (prefixed with '%'), netgroups (prefixed with '+')
    and "User_Alias"es. Each list item may be prefixed with zero or more '!'
    operators. An odd number of '!' operators negate the value of the item;
    an even number just cancel each other out.

    A "username", "group", "netgroup" and "nonunix_groups" may be enclosed
    in double quotes to avoid the need for escaping special characters.
    Alternately, special characters may be specified in escaped hex mode,
    e.g. \x20 for space.

    The "nonunix_group" syntax depends on the underlying implementation. For
    instance, the QAS AD backend supports the following formats:

    *   Group in the same domain: "Group Name"

    *   Group in any domain: "Group Name@FULLY.QUALIFIED.DOMAIN"

    *   Group SID: "S-1-2-34-5678901234-5678901234-5678901234-567"

    Note that quotes around group names are optional. Unquoted strings must
    use a backslash (\) to escape spaces and the '@' symbol.

     Runas_List ::= Runas_Member |
                    Runas_Member ',' Runas_List

     Runas_Member ::= '!'* username |
                      '!'* '#'uid |
                      '!'* '%'group |
                      '!'* +netgroup |
                      '!'* Runas_Alias

    A "Runas_List" is similar to a "User_List" except that instead of
    "User_Alias"es it can contain "Runas_Alias"es. Note that usernames and
    groups are matched as strings. In other words, two users (groups) with
    the same uid (gid) are considered to be distinct. If you wish to match
    all usernames with the same uid (e.g. root and toor), you can use a uid
    instead (#0 in the example given).

     Host_List ::= Host |
                   Host ',' Host_List

     Host ::= '!'* hostname |
              '!'* ip_addr |
              '!'* network(/netmask)? |
              '!'* '+'netgroup |
              '!'* Host_Alias

    A "Host_List" is made up of one or more hostnames, IP addresses, network
    numbers, netgroups (prefixed with '+') and other aliases. Again, the
    value of an item may be negated with the '!' operator. If you do not
    specify a netmask along with the network number, sudo will query each of
    the local host's network interfaces and, if the network number
    corresponds to one of the hosts's network interfaces, the corresponding
    netmask will be used. The netmask may be specified either in standard IP
    address notation (e.g. 255.255.255.0 or ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff::), or CIDR
    notation (number of bits, e.g. 24 or 64). A hostname may include
    shell-style wildcards (see the Wildcards section below), but unless the
    "hostname" command on your machine returns the fully qualified hostname,
    you'll need to use the fqdn option for wildcards to be useful.

     Cmnd_List ::= Cmnd |
                   Cmnd ',' Cmnd_List

     commandname ::= filename |
                     filename args |
                     filename '""'

     Cmnd ::= '!'* commandname |
              '!'* directory |
              '!'* "sudoedit" |
              '!'* Cmnd_Alias

    A "Cmnd_List" is a list of one or more commandnames, directories, and
    other aliases. A commandname is a fully qualified filename which may
    include shell-style wildcards (see the Wildcards section below). A
    simple filename allows the user to run the command with any arguments
    he/she wishes. However, you may also specify command line arguments
    (including wildcards). Alternately, you can specify "" to indicate that
    the command may only be run without command line arguments. A directory
    is a fully qualified pathname ending in a '/'. When you specify a
    directory in a "Cmnd_List", the user will be able to run any file within
    that directory (but not in any subdirectories therein).

    If a "Cmnd" has associated command line arguments, then the arguments in
    the "Cmnd" must match exactly those given by the user on the command
    line (or match the wildcards if there are any). Note that the following
    characters must be escaped with a '\' if they are used in command
    arguments: ',', ':', '=', '\'. The special command "sudoedit" is used to
    permit a user to run sudo with the -e option (or as sudoedit). It may
    take command line arguments just as a normal command does.

  Defaults
    Certain configuration options may be changed from their default values
    at runtime via one or more "Default_Entry" lines. These may affect all
    users on any host, all users on a specific host, a specific user, a
    specific command, or commands being run as a specific user. Note that
    per-command entries may not include command line arguments. If you need
    to specify arguments, define a "Cmnd_Alias" and reference that instead.

     Default_Type ::= 'Defaults' |
                      'Defaults' '@' Host_List |
                      'Defaults' ':' User_List |
                      'Defaults' '!' Cmnd_List |
                      'Defaults' '>' Runas_List

     Default_Entry ::= Default_Type Parameter_List

     Parameter_List ::= Parameter |
                        Parameter ',' Parameter_List

     Parameter ::= Parameter '=' Value |
                   Parameter '+=' Value |
                   Parameter '-=' Value |
                   '!'* Parameter

    Parameters may be flags, integer values, strings, or lists. Flags are
    implicitly boolean and can be turned off via the '!' operator. Some
    integer, string and list parameters may also be used in a boolean
    context to disable them. Values may be enclosed in double quotes (""")
    when they contain multiple words. Special characters may be escaped with
    a backslash ("\").

    Lists have two additional assignment operators, "+=" and "-=". These
    operators are used to add to and delete from a list respectively. It is
    not an error to use the "-=" operator to remove an element that does not
    exist in a list.

    Defaults entries are parsed in the following order: generic, host and
    user Defaults first, then runas Defaults and finally command defaults.

    See "SUDOERS OPTIONS" for a list of supported Defaults parameters.

  User Specification
     User_Spec ::= User_List Host_List '=' Cmnd_Spec_List \
                   (':' Host_List '=' Cmnd_Spec_List)*

     Cmnd_Spec_List ::= Cmnd_Spec |
                        Cmnd_Spec ',' Cmnd_Spec_List

     Cmnd_Spec ::= Runas_Spec? Tag_Spec* Cmnd

     Runas_Spec ::= '(' Runas_List? (':' Runas_List)? ')'

     Tag_Spec ::= ('NOPASSWD:' | 'PASSWD:' | 'NOEXEC:' | 'EXEC:' |
                   'SETENV:' | 'NOSETENV:' )

    A user specification determines which commands a user may run (and as
    what user) on specified hosts. By default, commands are run as root, but
    this can be changed on a per-command basis.

    The basic structure of a user specification is `who = where (as_whom)
    what'. Let's break that down into its constituent parts:

  Runas_Spec
    A "Runas_Spec" determines the user and/or the group that a command may
    be run as. A fully-specified "Runas_Spec" consists of two "Runas_List"s
    (as defined above) separated by a colon (':') and enclosed in a set of
    parentheses. The first "Runas_List" indicates which users the command
    may be run as via sudo's -u option. The second defines a list of groups
    that can be specified via sudo's -g option. If both "Runas_List"s are
    specified, the command may be run with any combination of users and
    groups listed in their respective "Runas_List"s. If only the first is
    specified, the command may be run as any user in the list but no -g
    option may be specified. If the first "Runas_List" is empty but the
    second is specified, the command may be run as the invoking user with
    the group set to any listed in the "Runas_List". If no "Runas_Spec" is
    specified the command may be run as root and no group may be specified.

    A "Runas_Spec" sets the default for the commands that follow it. What
    this means is that for the entry:

     dgb    boulder = (operator) /bin/ls, /bin/kill, /usr/bin/lprm

    The user dgb may run /bin/ls, /bin/kill, and /usr/bin/lprm -- but only
    as operator. E.g.,

     $ sudo -u operator /bin/ls.

    It is also possible to override a "Runas_Spec" later on in an entry. If
    we modify the entry like so:

     dgb    boulder = (operator) /bin/ls, (root) /bin/kill, /usr/bin/lprm

    Then user dgb is now allowed to run /bin/ls as operator, but
    /bin/kill and /usr/bin/lprm as root.

    We can extend this to allow dgb to run "/bin/ls" with either the user or
    group set to operator:

     dgb    boulder = (operator : operator) /bin/ls, (root) /bin/kill, \
            /usr/bin/lprm

    In the following example, user tcm may run commands that access a modem
    device file with the dialer group. Note that in this example only the
    group will be set, the command still runs as user tcm.

     tcm    boulder = (:dialer) /usr/bin/tip, /usr/bin/cu, \
            /usr/local/bin/minicom

  Tag_Spec
    A command may have zero or more tags associated with it. There are eight
    possible tag values, "NOPASSWD", "PASSWD", "NOEXEC", "EXEC", "SETENV"
    and "NOSETENV". Once a tag is set on a "Cmnd", subsequent "Cmnd"s in the
    "Cmnd_Spec_List", inherit the tag unless it is overridden by the
    opposite tag (i.e.: "PASSWD" overrides "NOPASSWD" and "NOEXEC" overrides
    "EXEC").

   NOPASSWD and PASSWD
    By default, sudo requires that a user authenticate him or herself before
    running a command. This behavior can be modified via the "NOPASSWD" tag.
    Like a "Runas_Spec", the "NOPASSWD" tag sets a default for the commands
    that follow it in the "Cmnd_Spec_List". Conversely, the "PASSWD" tag can
    be used to reverse things. For example:

     ray    rushmore = NOPASSWD: /bin/kill, /bin/ls, /usr/bin/lprm

    would allow the user ray to run /bin/kill, /bin/ls, and /usr/bin/lprm as
    root on the machine rushmore without authenticating himself. If we only
    want ray to be able to run /bin/kill without a password the entry would
    be:

     ray    rushmore = NOPASSWD: /bin/kill, PASSWD: /bin/ls, /usr/bin/lprm

    Note, however, that the "PASSWD" tag has no effect on users who are in
    the group specified by the exempt_group option.

    By default, if the "NOPASSWD" tag is applied to any of the entries for a
    user on the current host, he or she will be able to run "sudo -l"
    without a password. Additionally, a user may only run "sudo -v" without
    a password if the "NOPASSWD" tag is present for all a user's entries
    that pertain to the current host. This behavior may be overridden via
    the verifypw and listpw options.

   NOEXEC and EXEC
    If sudo has been compiled with noexec support and the underlying
    operating system supports it, the "NOEXEC" tag can be used to prevent a
    dynamically-linked executable from running further commands itself.

    In the following example, user aaron may run /usr/bin/more and
    /usr/bin/vi but shell escapes will be disabled.

     aaron  shanty = NOEXEC: /usr/bin/more, /usr/bin/vi

    See the "PREVENTING SHELL ESCAPES" section below for more details on how
    "NOEXEC" works and whether or not it will work on your system.

   SETENV and NOSETENV
    These tags override the value of the setenv option on a per-command
    basis. Note that if "SETENV" has been set for a command, any environment
    variables set on the command line way are not subject to the
    restrictions imposed by env_check, env_delete, or env_keep. As such,
    only trusted users should be allowed to set variables in this manner. If
    the command matched is ALL, the "SETENV" tag is implied for that
    command; this default may be overridden by use of the "UNSETENV" tag.

  Wildcards
    sudo allows shell-style wildcards (aka meta or glob characters) to be
    used in hostnames, pathnames and command line arguments in the
    sudoers file. Wildcard matching is done via the POSIX glob(3) and
    fnmatch(3) routines. Note that these are not regular expressions.

    "*"     Matches any set of zero or more characters.

    "?"     Matches any single character.

    "[...]" Matches any character in the specified range.

    "[!...]"
            Matches any character not in the specified range.

    "\x"    For any character "x", evaluates to "x". This is used to escape
            special characters such as: "*", "?", "[", and "}".

    POSIX character classes may also be used if your system's glob(3) and
    fnmatch(3) functions support them. However, because the ':' character
    has special meaning in sudoers, it must be escaped. For example:

        /bin/ls [[\:alpha\:]]*

    Would match any filename beginning with a letter.

    Note that a forward slash ('/') will not be matched by wildcards used in
    the pathname. When matching the command line arguments, however, a slash
    does get matched by wildcards. This is to make a path like:

        /usr/bin/*

    match /usr/bin/who but not /usr/bin/X11/xterm.

  Exceptions to wildcard rules
    The following exceptions apply to the above rules:

    ""      If the empty string "" is the only command line argument in the
            sudoers entry it means that command is not allowed to be run
            with any arguments.

  Including other files from within sudoers
    It is possible to include other sudoers files from within the
    sudoers file currently being parsed using the "#include" and
    "#includedir" directives.

    This can be used, for example, to keep a site-wide sudoers file in
    addition to a local, per-machine file. For the sake of this example the
    site-wide sudoers will be /etc/sudoers and the per-machine one will be
    /etc/sudoers.local. To include /etc/sudoers.local from within
    /etc/sudoers we would use the following line in /etc/sudoers:

        "#include /etc/sudoers.local"

    When sudo reaches this line it will suspend processing of the current
    file (/etc/sudoers) and switch to /etc/sudoers.local. Upon reaching the
    end of /etc/sudoers.local, the rest of /etc/sudoers will be processed.
    Files that are included may themselves include other files. A hard limit
    of 128 nested include files is enforced to prevent include file loops.

    The filename may include the %h escape, signifying the short form of the
    hostname. I.e., if the machine's hostname is "xerxes", then

    "#include /etc/sudoers.%h"

    will cause sudo to include the file /etc/sudoers.xerxes.

    The "#includedir" directive can be used to create a sudo.d directory
    that the system package manager can drop sudoers rules into as part of
    package installation. For example, given:

    "#includedir /etc/sudoers.d"

    sudo will read each file in /etc/sudoers.d, skipping file names that end
    in "~" or contain a "." character to avoid causing problems with package
    manager or editor temporary/backup files. Files are parsed in sorted
    lexical order. That is, /etc/sudoers.d/01_first will be parsed before
    /etc/sudoers.d/10_second. Be aware that because the sorting is lexical,
    not numeric, /etc/sudoers.d/1_whoops would be loaded after
    /etc/sudoers.d/10_second. Using a consistent number of leading zeroes in
    the file names can be used to avoid such problems.

    Note that unlike files included via "#include", visudo will not edit the
    files in a "#includedir" directory unless one of them contains a syntax
    error. It is still possible to run visudo with the "-f" flag to edit the
    files directly.

  Other special characters and reserved words
    The pound sign ('#') is used to indicate a comment (unless it is part of
    a #include directive or unless it occurs in the context of a user name
    and is followed by one or more digits, in which case it is treated as a
    uid). Both the comment character and any text after it, up to the end of
    the line, are ignored.

    The reserved word ALL is a built-in alias that always causes a match to
    succeed. It can be used wherever one might otherwise use a "Cmnd_Alias",
    "User_Alias", "Runas_Alias", or "Host_Alias". You should not try to
    define your own alias called ALL as the built-in alias will be used in
    preference to your own. Please note that using ALL can be dangerous
    since in a command context, it allows the user to run any command on the
    system.

    An exclamation point ('!') can be used as a logical not operator both in
    an alias and in front of a "Cmnd". This allows one to exclude certain
    values. Note, however, that using a "!" in conjunction with the built-in
    "ALL" alias to allow a user to run "all but a few" commands rarely works
    as intended (see SECURITY NOTES below).

    Long lines can be continued with a backslash ('\') as the last character
    on the line.

    Whitespace between elements in a list as well as special syntactic
    characters in a User Specification ('=', ':', '(', ')') is optional.

    The following characters must be escaped with a backslash ('\') when
    used as part of a word (e.g. a username or hostname): '@', '!', '=',
    ':', ',', '(', ')', '\'.

SUDOERS OPTIONS
    sudo's behavior can be modified by "Default_Entry" lines, as explained
    earlier. A list of all supported Defaults parameters, grouped by type,
    are listed below.

    Flags:

    always_set_home If set, sudo will set the "HOME" environment variable to
                    the home directory of the target user (which is root
                    unless the -u option is used). This effectively means
                    that the -H option is always implied. This flag is
                    off by default.

    authenticate    If set, users must authenticate themselves via a
                    password (or other means of authentication) before they
                    may run commands. This default may be overridden via the
                    "PASSWD" and "NOPASSWD" tags. This flag is on by
                    default.

    closefrom_override
                    If set, the user may use sudo's -C option which
                    overrides the default starting point at which sudo
                    begins closing open file descriptors. This flag is
                    off by default.

    env_editor      If set, visudo will use the value of the EDITOR or
                    VISUAL environment variables before falling back on the
                    default editor list. Note that this may create a
                    security hole as it allows the user to run any arbitrary
                    command as root without logging. A safer alternative is
                    to place a colon-separated list of editors in the
                    "editor" variable. visudo will then only use the EDITOR
                    or VISUAL if they match a value specified in "editor".
                    This flag is off by default.

    env_reset       If set, sudo will reset the environment to only contain
                    the LOGNAME, SHELL, USER, USERNAME and the "SUDO_*"
                    variables. Any variables in the caller's environment
                    that match the "env_keep" and "env_check" lists are then
                    added. The default contents of the "env_keep" and
                    "env_check" lists are displayed when sudo is run by root
                    with the -V option. If the secure_path option is set,
                    its value will be used for the "PATH" environment
                    variable. This flag is on by default.

    fqdn            Set this flag if you want to put fully qualified
                    hostnames in the sudoers file. I.e., instead of myhost
                    you would use myhost.mydomain.edu. You may still use the
                    short form if you wish (and even mix the two). Beware
                    that turning on fqdn requires sudo to make DNS lookups
                    which may make sudo unusable if DNS stops working (for
                    example if the machine is not plugged into the network).
                    Also note that you must use the host's official name as
                    DNS knows it. That is, you may not use a host alias
                    ("CNAME" entry) due to performance issues and the fact
                    that there is no way to get all aliases from DNS. If
                    your machine's hostname (as returned by the "hostname"
                    command) is already fully qualified you shouldn't need
                    to set fqdn. This flag is off by default.

    ignore_dot      If set, sudo will ignore '.' or '' (current dir) in the
                    "PATH" environment variable; the "PATH" itself is not
                    modified. This flag is off by default.

    ignore_local_sudoers
                    If set via LDAP, parsing of /etc/opt/quest/sudoers will
                    be skipped. This is intended for Enterprises that wish
                    to prevent the usage of local sudoers files so that only
                    LDAP is used. This thwarts the efforts of rogue
                    operators who would attempt to add roles to
                    /etc/opt/quest/sudoers. When this option is present,
                    /etc/opt/quest/sudoers does not even need to exist.
                    Since this option tells sudo how to behave when no
                    specific LDAP entries have been matched, this sudoOption
                    is only meaningful for the "cn=defaults" section. This
                    flag is off by default.

    insults         If set, sudo will insult users when they enter an
                    incorrect password. This flag is off by default.

    log_host        If set, the hostname will be logged in the (non-syslog)
                    sudo log file. This flag is off by default.

    log_year        If set, the four-digit year will be logged in the
                    (non-syslog) sudo log file. This flag is off by default.

    long_otp_prompt When validating with a One Time Password (OPT) scheme
                    such as S/Key or OPIE, a two-line prompt is used to make
                    it easier to cut and paste the challenge to a local
                    window. It's not as pretty as the default but some
                    people find it more convenient. This flag is off by
                    default.

    mail_always     Send mail to the mailto user every time a users runs
                    sudo. This flag is off by default.

    mail_badpass    Send mail to the mailto user if the user running
                    sudo does not enter the correct password. This flag is
                    off by default.

    mail_no_host    If set, mail will be sent to the mailto user if the
                    invoking user exists in the sudoers file, but is not
                    allowed to run commands on the current host. This flag
                    is off by default.

    mail_no_perms   If set, mail will be sent to the mailto user if the
                    invoking user is allowed to use sudo but the command
                    they are trying is not listed in their sudoers file
                    entry or is explicitly denied. This flag is off by
                    default.

    mail_no_user    If set, mail will be sent to the mailto user if the
                    invoking user is not in the sudoers file. This flag is
                    on by default.

    noexec          If set, all commands run via sudo will behave as if the
                    "NOEXEC" tag has been set, unless overridden by a "EXEC"
                    tag. See the description of NOEXEC and EXEC below as
                    well as the "PREVENTING SHELL ESCAPES" section at the
                    end of this manual. This flag is off by default.

    path_info       Normally, sudo will tell the user when a command could
                    not be found in their "PATH" environment variable. Some
                    sites may wish to disable this as it could be used to
                    gather information on the location of executables that
                    the normal user does not have access to. The
                    disadvantage is that if the executable is simply not in
                    the user's "PATH", sudo will tell the user that they are
                    not allowed to run it, which can be confusing. This flag
                    is @path_info@ by default.

    passprompt_override
                    The password prompt specified by passprompt will
                    normally only be used if the password prompt provided by
                    systems such as PAM matches the string "Password:". If
                    passprompt_override is set, passprompt will always be
                    used. This flag is off by default.

    preserve_groups By default, sudo will initialize the group vector to the
                    list of groups the target user is in. When
                    preserve_groups is set, the user's existing group vector
                    is left unaltered. The real and effective group IDs,
                    however, are still set to match the target user. This
                    flag is off by default.

    pwfeedback      By default, sudo reads the password like most other Unix
                    programs, by turning off echo until the user hits the
                    return (or enter) key. Some users become confused by
                    this as it appears to them that sudo has hung at this
                    point. When pwfeedback is set, sudo will provide visual
                    feedback when the user presses a key. Note that this
                    does have a security impact as an onlooker may be able
                    to determine the length of the password being entered.
                    This flag is off by default.

    requiretty      If set, sudo will only run when the user is logged in to
                    a real tty. When this flag is set, sudo can only be run
                    from a login session and not via other means such as
                    cron(8) or cgi-bin scripts. This flag is off by default.

    root_sudo       If set, root is allowed to run sudo too. Disabling this
                    prevents users from "chaining" sudo commands to get a
                    root shell by doing something like "sudo sudo /bin/sh".
                    Note, however, that turning off root_sudo will also
                    prevent root and from running sudoedit. Disabling
                    root_sudo provides no real additional security; it
                    exists purely for historical reasons. This flag is on by
                    default.

    rootpw          If set, sudo will prompt for the root password instead
                    of the password of the invoking user. This flag is
                    off by default.

    runaspw         If set, sudo will prompt for the password of the user
                    defined by the runas_default option (defaults to "root")
                    instead of the password of the invoking user. This flag
                    is off by default.

    set_home        If set and sudo is invoked with the -s option the "HOME"
                    environment variable will be set to the home directory
                    of the target user (which is root unless the -u option
                    is used). This effectively makes the -s option imply -H.
                    This flag is off by default.

    set_logname     Normally, sudo will set the "LOGNAME", "USER" and
                    "USERNAME" environment variables to the name of the
                    target user (usually root unless the -u option is
                    given). However, since some programs (including the RCS
                    revision control system) use "LOGNAME" to determine the
                    real identity of the user, it may be desirable to change
                    this behavior. This can be done by negating the
                    set_logname option. Note that if the env_reset option
                    has not been disabled, entries in the env_keep list will
                    override the value of set_logname. This flag is off by
                    default.

    setenv          Allow the user to disable the env_reset option from the
                    command line. Additionally, environment variables set
                    via the command line are not subject to the restrictions
                    imposed by env_check, env_delete, or env_keep. As such,
                    only trusted users should be allowed to set variables in
                    this manner. This flag is off by default.

    shell_noargs    If set and sudo is invoked with no arguments it acts as
                    if the -s option had been given. That is, it runs a
                    shell as root (the shell is determined by the "SHELL"
                    environment variable if it is set, falling back on the
                    shell listed in the invoking user's /etc/passwd entry if
                    not). This flag is off by default.

    fast_glob       Normally, sudo uses the glob(3) function to do
                    shell-style globbing when matching pathnames. However,
                    since it accesses the file system, glob(3) can take a
                    long time to complete for some patterns, especially when
                    the pattern references a network file system that is
                    mounted on demand (automounted). The fast_glob option
                    causes sudo to use the fnmatch(3) function, which does
                    not access the file system to do its matching. The
                    disadvantage of fast_glob is that it is unable to match
                    relative pathnames such as ./ls or ../bin/ls. This has
                    security implications when path names that include
                    globbing characters are used with the negation operator,
                    '!', as such rules can be trivially bypassed. As such,
                    this option should not be used when sudoers contains
                    rules that contain negated path names which include
                    globbing characters. This flag is off by default.

    stay_setuid     Normally, when sudo executes a command the real and
                    effective UIDs are set to the target user (root by
                    default). This option changes that behavior such that
                    the real UID is left as the invoking user's UID. In
                    other words, this makes sudo act as a setuid wrapper.
                    This can be useful on systems that disable some
                    potentially dangerous functionality when a program is
                    run setuid. This option is only effective on systems
                    with either the setreuid() or setresuid() function. This
                    flag is off by default.

    targetpw        If set, sudo will prompt for the password of the user
                    specified by the -u option (defaults to "root") instead
                    of the password of the invoking user. Note that this
                    precludes the use of a uid not listed in the passwd
                    database as an argument to the -u option. This flag is
                    off by default.

    tty_tickets     If set, users must authenticate on a per-tty basis.
                    Normally, sudo uses a directory in the ticket dir with
                    the same name as the user running it. With this flag
                    enabled, sudo will use a file named for the tty the user
                    is logged in on in that directory. This flag is off by
                    default.

    umask_override  If set, sudo will set the umask as specified by
                    sudoers without modification. This makes it possible to
                    specify a more permissive umask in sudoers than the
                    user's own umask and matches historical behavior. If
                    umask_override is not set, sudo will set the umask to be
                    the union of the user's umask and what is specified in
                    sudoers. This flag is off by default.

    use_loginclass  If set, sudo will apply the defaults specified for the
                    target user's login class if one exists. Only available
                    if sudo is configured with the --with-logincap option.
                    This flag is off by default.

    visiblepw       By default, sudo will refuse to run if the user must
                    enter a password but it is not possible to disable echo
                    on the terminal. If the visiblepw flag is set, sudo will
                    prompt for a password even when it would be visible on
                    the screen. This makes it possible to run things like
                    "rsh somehost sudo ls" since rsh(1) does not allocate a
                    tty. This flag is off by default.

    Integers:

    closefrom       Before it executes a command, sudo will close all open
                    file descriptors other than standard input, standard
                    output and standard error (ie: file descriptors 0-2).
                    The closefrom option can be used to specify a different
                    file descriptor at which to start closing. The default
                    is 3.

    passwd_tries    The number of tries a user gets to enter his/her
                    password before sudo logs the failure and exits. The
                    default is 3.

    Integers that can be used in a boolean context:

    loglinelen      Number of characters per line for the file log. This
                    value is used to decide when to wrap lines for nicer log
                    files. This has no effect on the syslog log file, only
                    the file log. The default is 80 (use 0 or negate the
                    option to disable word wrap).

    passwd_timeout  Number of minutes before the sudo password prompt times
                    out. The default is 5; set this to 0 for no password
                    timeout.

    timestamp_timeout
                    Number of minutes that can elapse before sudo will ask
                    for a passwd again. The default is 5. Set this to 0 to
                    always prompt for a password. If set to a value less
                    than 0 the user's timestamp will never expire. This can
                    be used to allow users to create or delete their own
                    timestamps via "sudo -v" and "sudo -k" respectively.

    umask           Umask to use when running the command. Negate this
                    option or set it to 0777 to preserve the user's umask.
                    The actual umask that is used will be the union of the
                    user's umask and 0022. This guarantees that sudo never
                    lowers the umask when running a command. Note on systems
                    that use PAM, the default PAM configuration may specify
                    its own umask which will override the value set in
                    sudoers.

    Strings:

    badpass_message Message that is displayed if a user enters an incorrect
                    password. The default is "Sorry, try again." unless
                    insults are enabled.

    editor          A colon (':') separated list of editors allowed to be
                    used with visudo. visudo will choose the editor that
                    matches the user's EDITOR environment variable if
                    possible, or the first editor in the list that exists
                    and is executable. The default is the path to vi on your
                    system.

    mailsub         Subject of the mail sent to the mailto user. The escape
                    %h will expand to the hostname of the machine. Default
                    is "*** SECURITY information for %h ***".

    noexec_file     Path to a shared library containing dummy versions of
                    the execv(), execve() and fexecve() library functions
                    that just return an error. This is used to implement the
                    noexec functionality on systems that support
                    "LD_PRELOAD" or its equivalent. Defaults to
                    /opt/quest/lib/libsudo_noexec.so.

    passprompt      The default prompt to use when asking for a password;
                    can be overridden via the -p option or the "SUDO_PROMPT"
                    environment variable. The following percent (`"%"')
                    escapes are supported:

                    %H  expanded to the local hostname including the domain
                        name (on if the machine's hostname is fully
                        qualified or the fqdn option is set)

                    %h  expanded to the local hostname without the domain
                        name

                    %p  expanded to the user whose password is being asked
                        for (respects the rootpw, targetpw and runaspw flags
                        in sudoers)

                    %U  expanded to the login name of the user the command
                        will be run as (defaults to root)

                    %u  expanded to the invoking user's login name

                    "%%"
                        two consecutive "%" characters are collapsed into a
                        single "%" character

                    The default value is "Password:".

    role            The default SELinux role to use when constructing a new
                    security context to run the command. The default role
                    may be overridden on a per-command basis in sudoers or
                    via command line options. This option is only available
                    whe sudo is built with SELinux support.

    runas_default   The default user to run commands as if the -u option is
                    not specified on the command line. This defaults to
                    "root". Note that if runas_default is set it must occur
                    before any "Runas_Alias" specifications.

    syslog_badpri   Syslog priority to use when user authenticates
                    unsuccessfully. Defaults to "alert".

    syslog_goodpri  Syslog priority to use when user authenticates
                    successfully. Defaults to "notice".

    sudoers_locale  Locale to use when parsing the sudoers file. Note that
                    changing the locale may affect how sudoers is
                    interpreted. Defaults to "C".

    timestampdir    The directory in which sudo stores its timestamp files.
                    The default is /var/run/sudo.

    timestampowner  The owner of the timestamp directory and the timestamps
                    stored therein. The default is "root".

    type            The default SELinux type to use when constructing a new
                    security context to run the command. The default type
                    may be overridden on a per-command basis in sudoers or
                    via command line options. This option is only available
                    whe sudo is built with SELinux support.

    Strings that can be used in a boolean context:

    askpass     The askpass option specifies the fully qualified path to a
                helper program used to read the user's password when no
                terminal is available. This may be the case when sudo is
                executed from a graphical (as opposed to text-based)
                application. The program specified by askpass should display
                the argument passed to it as the prompt and write the user's
                password to the standard output. The value of askpass may be
                overridden by the "SUDO_ASKPASS" environment variable.

    env_file    The env_file options specifies the fully qualified path to a
                file containing variables to be set in the environment of
                the program being run. Entries in this file should either be
                of the form "VARIABLE=value" or "export VARIABLE=value". The
                value may optionally be surrounded by single or double
                quotes. Variables in this file are subject to other sudo
                environment settings such as env_keep and env_check.

    exempt_group
                Users in this group are exempt from password and PATH
                requirements. This is not set by default.

    lecture     This option controls when a short lecture will be printed
                along with the password prompt. It has the following
                possible values:

                always  Always lecture the user.

                never   Never lecture the user.

                once    Only lecture the user the first time they run sudo.

                If no value is specified, a value of once is implied.
                Negating the option results in a value of never being used.
                The default value is once.

    lecture_file
                Path to a file containing an alternate sudo lecture that
                will be used in place of the standard lecture if the named
                file exists. By default, sudo uses a built-in lecture.

    listpw      This option controls when a password will be required when a
                user runs sudo with the -l option. It has the following
                possible values:

                all     All the user's sudoers entries for the current host
                        must have the "NOPASSWD" flag set to avoid entering
                        a password.

                always  The user must always enter a password to use the
                        -l option.

                any     At least one of the user's sudoers entries for the
                        current host must have the "NOPASSWD" flag set to
                        avoid entering a password.

                never   The user need never enter a password to use the
                        -l option.

                If no value is specified, a value of any is implied.
                Negating the option results in a value of never being used.
                The default value is any.

    logfile     Path to the sudo log file (not the syslog log file). Setting
                a path turns on logging to a file; negating this option
                turns it off. By default, sudo logs via syslog.

    mailerflags Flags to use when invoking mailer. Defaults to -t.

    mailerpath  Path to mail program used to send warning mail. Defaults to
                the path to sendmail found at configure time.

    mailfrom    Address to use for the "from" address when sending warning
                and error mail. The address should be enclosed in double
                quotes (""") to protect against sudo interpreting the "@"
                sign. Defaults to the name of the user running sudo.

    mailto      Address to send warning and error mail to. The address
                should be enclosed in double quotes (""") to protect against
                sudo interpreting the "@" sign. Defaults to "root".

    secure_path Path used for every command run from sudo. If you don't
                trust the people running sudo to have a sane "PATH"
                environment variable you may want to use this. Another use
                is if you want to have the "root path" be separate from the
                "user path." Users in the group specified by the
                exempt_group option are not affected by secure_path. This
                option is @secure_path@ by default.

    syslog      Syslog facility if syslog is being used for logging (negate
                to disable syslog logging). Defaults to "local2".

    verifypw    This option controls when a password will be required when a
                user runs sudo with the -v option. It has the following
                possible values:

                all     All the user's sudoers entries for the current host
                        must have the "NOPASSWD" flag set to avoid entering
                        a password.

                always  The user must always enter a password to use the
                        -v option.

                any     At least one of the user's sudoers entries for the
                        current host must have the "NOPASSWD" flag set to
                        avoid entering a password.

                never   The user need never enter a password to use the
                        -v option.

                If no value is specified, a value of all is implied.
                Negating the option results in a value of never being used.
                The default value is all.

    Lists that can be used in a boolean context:

    env_check       Environment variables to be removed from the user's
                    environment if the variable's value contains "%" or "/"
                    characters. This can be used to guard against
                    printf-style format vulnerabilities in poorly-written
                    programs. The argument may be a double-quoted,
                    space-separated list or a single value without
                    double-quotes. The list can be replaced, added to,
                    deleted from, or disabled by using the "=", "+=", "-=",
                    and "!" operators respectively. Regardless of whether
                    the "env_reset" option is enabled or disabled, variables
                    specified by "env_check" will be preserved in the
                    environment if they pass the aforementioned check. The
                    default list of environment variables to check is
                    displayed when sudo is run by root with the -V option.

    env_delete      Environment variables to be removed from the user's
                    environment when the env_reset option is not in effect.
                    The argument may be a double-quoted, space-separated
                    list or a single value without double-quotes. The list
                    can be replaced, added to, deleted from, or disabled by
                    using the "=", "+=", "-=", and "!" operators
                    respectively. The default list of environment variables
                    to remove is displayed when sudo is run by root with the
                    -V option. Note that many operating systems will remove
                    potentially dangerous variables from the environment of
                    any setuid process (such as sudo).

    env_keep        Environment variables to be preserved in the user's
                    environment when the env_reset option is in effect. This
                    allows fine-grained control over the environment
                    sudo-spawned processes will receive. The argument may be
                    a double-quoted, space-separated list or a single value
                    without double-quotes. The list can be replaced, added
                    to, deleted from, or disabled by using the "=", "+=",
                    "-=", and "!" operators respectively. The default list
                    of variables to keep is displayed when sudo is run by
                    root with the -V option.

    When logging via syslog(3), sudo accepts the following values for the
    syslog facility (the value of the syslog Parameter): authpriv (if your
    OS supports it), auth, daemon, user, local0, local1, local2, local3,
    local4, local5, local6, and local7. The following syslog priorities are
    supported: alert, crit, debug, emerg, err, info, notice, and warning.

FILES
    /etc/opt/quest/sudoers  List of who can run what

    /etc/group              Local groups file

    /etc/netgroup           List of network groups

EXAMPLES
    Below are example sudoers entries. Admittedly, some of these are a bit
    contrived. First, we define our aliases:

     # User alias specification
     User_Alias     FULLTIMERS = millert, mikef, dowdy
     User_Alias     PARTTIMERS = bostley, jwfox, crawl
     User_Alias     WEBMASTERS = will, wendy, wim

     # Runas alias specification
     Runas_Alias    OP = root, operator
     Runas_Alias    DB = oracle, sybase
     Runas_Alias    ADMINGRP = adm, oper

     # Host alias specification
     Host_Alias     SPARC = bigtime, eclipse, moet, anchor :\
                    SGI = grolsch, dandelion, black :\
                    ALPHA = widget, thalamus, foobar :\
                    HPPA = boa, nag, python
     Host_Alias     CUNETS = 128.138.0.0/255.255.0.0
     Host_Alias     CSNETS = 128.138.243.0, 128.138.204.0/24, 128.138.242.0
     Host_Alias     SERVERS = master, mail, www, ns
     Host_Alias     CDROM = orion, perseus, hercules

     # Cmnd alias specification
     Cmnd_Alias     DUMPS = /usr/bin/mt, /usr/sbin/dump, /usr/sbin/rdump,\
                            /usr/sbin/restore, /usr/sbin/rrestore
     Cmnd_Alias     KILL = /usr/bin/kill
     Cmnd_Alias     PRINTING = /usr/sbin/lpc, /usr/bin/lprm
     Cmnd_Alias     SHUTDOWN = /usr/sbin/shutdown
     Cmnd_Alias     HALT = /usr/sbin/halt
     Cmnd_Alias     REBOOT = /usr/sbin/reboot
     Cmnd_Alias     SHELLS = /usr/bin/sh, /usr/bin/csh, /usr/bin/ksh, \
                             /usr/local/bin/tcsh, /usr/bin/rsh, \
                             /usr/local/bin/zsh
     Cmnd_Alias     SU = /usr/bin/su
     Cmnd_Alias     PAGERS = /usr/bin/more, /usr/bin/pg, /usr/bin/less

    Here we override some of the compiled in default values. We want sudo to
    log via syslog(3) using the auth facility in all cases. We don't want to
    subject the full time staff to the sudo lecture, user millert need not
    give a password, and we don't want to reset the "LOGNAME", "USER" or
    "USERNAME" environment variables when running commands as root.
    Additionally, on the machines in the SERVERS "Host_Alias", we keep an
    additional local log file and make sure we log the year in each log line
    since the log entries will be kept around for several years. Lastly, we
    disable shell escapes for the commands in the PAGERS "Cmnd_Alias"
    (/usr/bin/more, /usr/bin/pg and /usr/bin/less).

     # Override built-in defaults
     Defaults               syslog=auth
     Defaults>root          !set_logname
     Defaults:FULLTIMERS    !lecture
     Defaults:millert       !authenticate
     Defaults@SERVERS       log_year, logfile=/var/log/sudo.log
     Defaults!PAGERS        noexec

    The User specification is the part that actually determines who may run
    what.

     root           ALL = (ALL) ALL
     %wheel         ALL = (ALL) ALL

    We let root and any user in group wheel run any command on any host as
    any user.

     FULLTIMERS     ALL = NOPASSWD: ALL

    Full time sysadmins (millert, mikef, and dowdy) may run any command on
    any host without authenticating themselves.

     PARTTIMERS     ALL = ALL

    Part time sysadmins (bostley, jwfox, and crawl) may run any command on
    any host but they must authenticate themselves first (since the entry
    lacks the "NOPASSWD" tag).

     jack           CSNETS = ALL

    The user jack may run any command on the machines in the CSNETS alias
    (the networks 128.138.243.0, 128.138.204.0, and 128.138.242.0). Of those
    networks, only 128.138.204.0 has an explicit netmask (in CIDR notation)
    indicating it is a class C network. For the other networks in CSNETS,
    the local machine's netmask will be used during matching.

     lisa           CUNETS = ALL

    The user lisa may run any command on any host in the CUNETS alias (the
    class B network 128.138.0.0).

     operator       ALL = DUMPS, KILL, SHUTDOWN, HALT, REBOOT, PRINTING,\
                    sudoedit /etc/printcap, /usr/oper/bin/

    The operator user may run commands limited to simple maintenance. Here,
    those are commands related to backups, killing processes, the printing
    system, shutting down the system, and any commands in the directory
    /usr/oper/bin/.

     joe            ALL = /usr/bin/su operator

    The user joe may only su(1) to operator.

     pete           HPPA = /usr/bin/passwd [A-Za-z]*, !/usr/bin/passwd root

     %opers         ALL = (: ADMINGRP) /usr/sbin/

    Users in the opers group may run commands in /usr/sbin/ as themselves
    with any group in the ADMINGRP "Runas_Alias" (the adm and oper groups).

    The user pete is allowed to change anyone's password except for root on
    the HPPA machines. Note that this assumes passwd(1) does not take
    multiple usernames on the command line.

     bob            SPARC = (OP) ALL : SGI = (OP) ALL

    The user bob may run anything on the SPARC and SGI machines as any user
    listed in the OP "Runas_Alias" (root and operator).

     jim            +biglab = ALL

    The user jim may run any command on machines in the biglab netgroup.
    sudo knows that "biglab" is a netgroup due to the '+' prefix.

     +secretaries   ALL = PRINTING, /usr/bin/adduser, /usr/bin/rmuser

    Users in the secretaries netgroup need to help manage the printers as
    well as add and remove users, so they are allowed to run those commands
    on all machines.

     fred           ALL = (DB) NOPASSWD: ALL

    The user fred can run commands as any user in the DB "Runas_Alias"
    (oracle or sybase) without giving a password.

     john           ALPHA = /usr/bin/su [!-]*, !/usr/bin/su *root*

    On the ALPHA machines, user john may su to anyone except root but he is
    not allowed to specify any options to the su(1) command.

     jen            ALL, !SERVERS = ALL

    The user jen may run any command on any machine except for those in the
    SERVERS "Host_Alias" (master, mail, www and ns).

     jill           SERVERS = /usr/bin/, !SU, !SHELLS

    For any machine in the SERVERS "Host_Alias", jill may run any commands
    in the directory /usr/bin/ except for those commands belonging to the
    SU and SHELLS "Cmnd_Aliases".

     steve          CSNETS = (operator) /usr/local/op_commands/

    The user steve may run any command in the directory
    /usr/local/op_commands/ but only as user operator.

     matt           valkyrie = KILL

    On his personal workstation, valkyrie, matt needs to be able to kill
    hung processes.

     WEBMASTERS     www = (www) ALL, (root) /usr/bin/su www

    On the host www, any user in the WEBMASTERS "User_Alias" (will, wendy,
    and wim), may run any command as user www (which owns the web pages) or
    simply su(1) to www.

     ALL            CDROM = NOPASSWD: /sbin/umount /CDROM,\
                    /sbin/mount -o nosuid\,nodev /dev/cd0a /CDROM

    Any user may mount or unmount a CD-ROM on the machines in the CDROM
    "Host_Alias" (orion, perseus, hercules) without entering a password.
    This is a bit tedious for users to type, so it is a prime candidate for
    encapsulating in a shell script.

SECURITY NOTES
    It is generally not effective to "subtract" commands from "ALL" using
    the '!' operator. A user can trivially circumvent this by copying the
    desired command to a different name and then executing that. For
    example:

        bill        ALL = ALL, !SU, !SHELLS

    Doesn't really prevent bill from running the commands listed in SU or
    SHELLS since he can simply copy those commands to a different name, or
    use a shell escape from an editor or other program. Therefore, these
    kind of restrictions should be considered advisory at best (and
    reinforced by policy).

    Furthermore, if the fast_glob option is in use, it is not possible to
    reliably negate commands where the path name includes globbing (aka
    wildcard) characters. This is because the C library's fnmatch(3)
    function cannot resolve relative paths. While this is typically only an
    inconvenience for rules that grant privileges, it can result in a
    security issue for rules that subtract or revoke privileges.

    For example, given the following sudoers entry:

     john   ALL = /usr/bin/passwd [a-zA-Z0-9]*, /usr/bin/chsh [a-zA-Z0-9]*,
          /usr/bin/chfn [a-zA-Z0-9]*, !/usr/bin/* root

    User john can still run "/usr/bin/passwd root" if fast_glob is enabled
    by changing to /usr/bin and running "./passwd root" instead.

PREVENTING SHELL ESCAPES
    Once sudo executes a program, that program is free to do whatever it
    pleases, including run other programs. This can be a security issue
    since it is not uncommon for a program to allow shell escapes, which
    lets a user bypass sudo's access control and logging. Common programs
    that permit shell escapes include shells (obviously), editors,
    paginators, mail and terminal programs.

    There are two basic approaches to this problem:

    restrict  Avoid giving users access to commands that allow the user to
              run arbitrary commands. Many editors have a restricted mode
              where shell escapes are disabled, though sudoedit is a better
              solution to running editors via sudo. Due to the large number
              of programs that offer shell escapes, restricting users to the
              set of programs that do not if often unworkable.

    noexec    Many systems that support shared libraries have the ability to
              override default library functions by pointing an environment
              variable (usually "LD_PRELOAD") to an alternate shared
              library. On such systems, sudo's noexec functionality can be
              used to prevent a program run by sudo from executing any other
              programs. Note, however, that this applies only to native
              dynamically-linked executables. Statically-linked executables
              and foreign executables running under binary emulation are not
              affected.

              To tell whether or not sudo supports noexec, you can run the
              following as root:

                  sudo -V | grep "dummy exec"

              If the resulting output contains a line that begins with:

                  File containing dummy exec functions:

              then sudo may be able to replace the exec family of functions
              in the standard library with its own that simply return an
              error. Unfortunately, there is no foolproof way to know
              whether or not noexec will work at compile-time. noexec should
              work on SunOS, Solaris, *BSD, Linux, IRIX, Tru64 UNIX, MacOS
              X, and HP-UX 11.x. It is known not to work on AIX and
              UnixWare. noexec is expected to work on most operating systems
              that support the "LD_PRELOAD" environment variable. Check your
              operating system's manual pages for the dynamic linker
              (usually ld.so, ld.so.1, dyld, dld.sl, rld, or loader) to see
              if "LD_PRELOAD" is supported.

              To enable noexec for a command, use the "NOEXEC" tag as
              documented in the User Specification section above. Here is
              that example again:

               aaron  shanty = NOEXEC: /usr/bin/more, /usr/bin/vi

              This allows user aaron to run /usr/bin/more and
              /usr/bin/vi with noexec enabled. This will prevent those two
              commands from executing other commands (such as a shell). If
              you are unsure whether or not your system is capable of
              supporting noexec you can always just try it out and see if it
              works.

    Note that restricting shell escapes is not a panacea. Programs running
    as root are still capable of many potentially hazardous operations (such
    as changing or overwriting files) that could lead to unintended
    privilege escalation. In the specific case of an editor, a safer
    approach is to give the user permission to run sudoedit.

SEE ALSO
    rsh(1), su(1), fnmatch(3), glob(3), sudo(8), visudo(8)

CAVEATS
    The sudoers file should always be edited by the visudo command which
    locks the file and does grammatical checking. It is imperative that
    sudoers be free of syntax errors since sudo will not run with a
    syntactically incorrect sudoers file.

    When using netgroups of machines (as opposed to users), if you store
    fully qualified hostnames in the netgroup (as is usually the case), you
    either need to have the machine's hostname be fully qualified as
    returned by the "hostname" command or use the fqdn option in sudoers.

BUGS
    If you feel you have found a bug in sudo, please submit a bug report at
    http://www.sudo.ws/sudo/bugs/

SUPPORT
    Limited free support is available via the sudo-users mailing list, see
    http://www.sudo.ws/mailman/listinfo/sudo-users to subscribe or search
    the archives.

DISCLAIMER
    sudo is provided ``AS IS'' and any express or implied warranties,
    including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability
    and fitness for a particular purpose are disclaimed. See the LICENSE
    file distributed with sudo or http://www.sudo.ws/sudo/license.html for
    complete details.